By Joan Beal
This sequence presents introductions to the most parts of English language examine. Volumes disguise points of the background and constitution of the language resembling: syntax, phonology, morphology, local and social edition, previous English, center English, Early glossy English and foreign Englishes.
content material: 1. advent: are neighborhood types doomed?; 2. accessory; three. Dialect I: 'grammar'; four. Dialect II: lexis; five. The Diffusion version; 6. Levelling; 7. nearby identification/ groups of perform; eight. Stereotypes; nine. end; 10. Resources.
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Extra resources for An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England
1, regional and other non-standard forms and constructions are often viewed by non-linguists as being ‘uneducated’, ‘incorrect’ or simply ‘bad grammar’. Whilst attitudes to regional accents tend to be ambivalent, with positive and negative traits attributed to them and their speakers, non-standard morphology and syntax are rarely seen in a positive light. One reason for this could be that, whereas at least some regional accents are fairly well recognised, and dialect vocabulary is often considered ‘authentic’, many features of non-standard morphology and syntax are fairly widespread within England, and so are considered to be social rather than regional variables.
The geographical distribution of these patterns is not straightforward, but some generalisations can be made. Cheshire et al. found that, whilst their survey respondents reported levelling to was throughout the country, it was ‘less widespread … in the urban centres of the North of England’ and, conversely ‘non-standard were was also reported frequently, in conjunction with non-standard was, by schools in the NorthWest, Yorkshire and Humberside, and in the East and West Midlands’ (1993: 72). This distribution of non-standard were corresponds to that found by Ellis (1889), as reported in Britain (2002: 21): although there are isolated reports of it from various parts of the country, it seems to cluster around Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire and Yorkshire, in other words a continuous area of the ‘Lower North’, NorthWest and North-East Midlands.
Watt and Milroy suggest that the younger Tynesiders are signalling that they do not wish to identify with the ‘old-fashioned’ cloth-cap-and-clogs image of their fathers, but still wish to be identified as northerners, so they are assimi- 1085 pages 1-124:Regional Englishes 20 5/10/10 11:50 Page 20 AN INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL ENGLISHES lating their speech to a pan-Northern norm. On the other hand, on the southern boundary of Trudgill’s ‘geht’ region, the diphthongal variant is spreading from urban centres such as Liverpool and Manchester, and the traditional Lancashire monophthong is associated with more ‘oldfashioned’ speech.
An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England by Joan Beal