By I. G. Craig, N. W. Nash, G. A. Oldfield (auth.), C. P. Ellinas (eds.)
Dr C P Ellinas complicated Mechanics & Engineering Ltd significant advances were accomplished lately in subsea pipeline layout and set up. Inspection, upkeep and service have additionally got a lot realization. the improvement of marginal fields has introduced with it unique difficulties, that have necessitated novel equipment and suggestions. for the time being curiosity within the improvement of deepwater fields maintains with the advance of latest know-how. This convention has positioned emphasis in addressing advancements in pipeline know-how lower than 4 major headings: pipeline/seabed interplay; versatile pipelines; pipeline layout, fabrication and install; deepwater functions. Advances in North Sea expertise during the last few years were involved in general with marginal fields, small diameter pipelines and new fabrics, that are good coated within the first 3 issues. financial improvement of marginal fields calls for processing of oil and fuel to occur now not on the wellhead yet at current amenities, frequently a ways away. Hydrocarbons are therefore usually transported at excessive strain and temperature in small diameter pipelines, which must be safe via trenching. in spite of the fact that, such operational perform has dropped at the fore an issue that previously used to be of little situation particularly, upheaval buckling.
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Additional info for Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology: Papers presented at Aspect ’90, a conference organized by the Society for Underwater Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 30–31, 1990
Several issues still had to be considered:(i) To what temperature did the flowline have to be raised during installation to achieve the objective. (ii) Was the produced water temperature high enough to satisfy (i) or were heaters required. (iii) If heaters were necessary could the platform supply the power. Alternatively could temporary mobile generators provide the power source. (iv) The Balmoral FPV is an operating platform with limited available space for large amounts of temporary equipment.
ADVANCES IN SUBSEA PIPELINE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY 26 TEMPLATE TEMP deg C TREE END TEMP degC 11o r-------------~--------------------------, 110 - [ - - MAXIMUM OPERATING 100 ACTUAl ,70C . 200gpm J 100 / 90 90 80 80 / -,/ , " OPERATING ENVelOPE OF HO .. ". ,:WA~~R If : FLUSH 50 / - SYSTE~ 70 60 50 40 ~--~----~----~--~----~----~--~L---~ 40 o 234 567 8 DISTANCE FROM TEMPLATE kml FIG 6- 16/21a-6 FLOWLINE TEMPERATURES To provide security against breakdown at a critical stage of the operation a decision was made to provide two 100 percent flushing trains in parallel.
Based on the Balmoral data, and allowing for the heavier and stiffer Glamis pipe sections, the minimum buckling load for the Glamis flowlines was conservatively calculated as being equivalent to a 58°C (±9°C) thermal load. Referring to Figure 2, the minimum hot water flushing temperature was equal to the flowline maximum operating temperature at A less 58°C. To fix point A. assumpti ons had to be made concerning the bull d up in soi 1 restrai nt on the flowline. To avoid doing so and provide a margin conservatively assumed to be at the wellhead.
Advances in Subsea Pipeline Engineering and Technology: Papers presented at Aspect ’90, a conference organized by the Society for Underwater Technology and held in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 30–31, 1990 by I. G. Craig, N. W. Nash, G. A. Oldfield (auth.), C. P. Ellinas (eds.)