By Robert James Matthys
The Shortt clock, made within the 1920's is the main recognized exact clock pendulum ever identified, having an accuracy of 1 moment in line with 12 months while saved at approximately consistent temperature. just about all of a pendulum clock's accuracy is living in its pendulum. If the pendulum is actual, the clock could be actual. during this ebook, the writer describes many medical facets of pendulum layout and operation merely with experimental facts, and little arithmetic. it's been written, taking a look at the entire diverse elements and elements of the pendulum in nice element, bankruptcy by way of bankruptcy, reflecting the measure of consciousness helpful for creating a pendulum run properly. the subjects lined comprise the dimensional balance of alternative pendulum fabrics, solid and negative suspension spring designs, the layout of mechanical joints and clamps, impact of quartz on accuracy, temperature reimbursement, air drag of other bob shapes and making s sinusoidal electromagnetic force. One complete bankruptcy is dedicated to basic methods of bettering the accuracy of standard inexpensive pendulum clocks, that have a distinct building to the dearer designs of considerably well-made ones. This publication will end up worthwhile to someone who desires to know the way to make a extra exact pendulum or pendulum clock.
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Extra info for Accurate Clock Pendulums
One is a 5 MHz crystal oscillator, with a Q of about 1 million. The other is an atomic oscillator whose gigahertz frequency is the frequency difference between two atomic energy levels. The gigahertz oscillator does not have a real Q, as its frequency is the frequency difference between the two energy levels. But an artificial or imputed Q is sometimes used, obtained by dividing the gigahertz oscillator’s frequency by the small variation detected in the gigahertz oscillator’s frequency . The small frequency variation can be reduced (and the imputed Q increased) by keeping the atoms longer at the higher energy level before they fall back to their lower energy level.
Newslett. chapter #161, NAWCC (April 1993). R. Matthys. “Q, bob shape, scaling, and air currents,” Hor. Sci. Newsletter of chapter #161, NAWCC (December 1994). D. Cain. ”, Hor. Sci. Newsletter of chapter #161, NAWCC (February 1995). L. Leeds. “Clock pendulums and the Q parameter,” NAWCC Library, February 1970. Also Hor. Sci. Newsletter of chapter #161, NAWCC (September 1995). H. Wallman. “Comments on Bateman’s vibration theory,” Hor. J. (August 1978), 48–50. V. Bottom. Private communication, and “Introduction to quartz crystal unit design,” Van Nostrand Reinhold, published simultaneously in New York and Canada, 1982.
29. D. Allan. “Time and frequency (time-domain) characterization, estimation, and prediction of precision clocks and oscillators,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFFC-34(6) (November 1987), 647–54. D. Bateman. “Electronically maintained precision pendulum clock— longer term performance,” Hor. J. (October 1975), 3–11. D. Sullivan et al. (eds). “Characterization of clocks and oscillators,” NIST Technical Note 1337 (1990). ) from NIST, Boulder, Colorado, Phone 303-497-3212. This is an updated collection of papers on the Allan variance.
Accurate Clock Pendulums by Robert James Matthys