By R. W. Fairbrother and Geoffrey A. Taylor (Auth.)
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Extra info for A Text-Book of Bacteriology
The X factor is relatively thermostable, resisting a temperature of 120 0 C. for 45 minutes, and is considered to be hrematin. , is found in blood, yeast and certain vegetables, and behaves as a co-enzyme. In recent years it has been established that similar substances are required by other organisms and that in some cases they are actually synthesized by the organisms. Important growth factors are p-aminobenzoic acid, nicotinic acid, folic acid, biotin, thiamin and pyridoxin. 0 BIOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY Bacteria are not only responsible for a number of important human and animal diseases, but they also play an essential role in nature by making possible the chemical interchange between the animal and vegetable kingdoms.
Anaerobic bacteria, the growth of which is inhibited by minute traces of free oxygen, are referred to as obligate anaerobes. Some bacteria grow most luxuriantly under modified atmospheric conditions; oxygen is required, but less than is present in the air; these organisms are termed rnicro-aerophiles. There is no sharp line of demarcation between aerobes and anaerobes. Many aerobes are able to multiply under anaerobic conditions, while even strict anaerobes can grow under ordinary atmospheric conditions if strongly reducing substances, such as thioglycollate or pieces of tissue, are added to the medium.
Thus S. typhi acts on glucose with the production of formic acid, at which stage fermentation ceases. When, however, E, coli acts on the same sugar, the process goes a step further and the end-products are C~02 and If 2; E, coli forms an enzyme which can break down formic acid in the following manner: For the diagnostic application of the fermentation tests various sugar solutions of 0·5-1 per cent. strength are made in peptone-water or serum-water medium. , gas formation. 'The following are the carbohydrates in frequent use : (a) Monosaccharides--glucose, arabinose, xylose, leevulose and galactose.
A Text-Book of Bacteriology by R. W. Fairbrother and Geoffrey A. Taylor (Auth.)