By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin
This booklet takes a multidisciplinary and long term old point of view to review the evolution of African political structures and associations. It ranges from Antiquity (Egypt, Kush, and Axum) to the current, with a selected specialise in the destruction of those political structures and associations via successive exogenous approaches, together with the Atlantic slave alternate, imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism or globalization.
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Extra info for A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika
In the New Kingdom, pharaoh meant the king who was situated above mankind, as indicated by the names, statues, pomp, and the style of the tombs. The pharaoh was a god-king who married many wives. The son inherited his father’s power, but the king could also choose his successor. Rituals reinforced the god-king belief. There were four women pharaohs: Nitokris, Sebeknefu (who marked the end of a dynasty), Hatshepsut, and Tauosne. All four were treated as usurpers by posterity. Women had a key role in the system.
As “Mistress of Kush,” she sometimes adopted the wife of her son to ensure new blood into the kingship. On some occasions, kings honored their sisters. For example, Anlamani’s inscription says that he dedicated each of his four sisters to one of the four temples of Amun to be sistrum players and to pray for him before this god. In religious matters, the queen was only second to the king. Queens could also act as co-regents when they assumed power after the death of their husbands. Sometimes queen mothers—rather than their sons or husbands—directly assumed political office.
The sacral chiefs of the Middle Nile Basin cultural area became the divine kings of Egypt. South of Egypt, under the monotheistic Sudanic religion, the later kings of Nubia retained their sacral aspects but could never be viewed as gods themselves. In contrast, in Egypt it was possible, by the time of the Third Dynasty, for a king to claim to being included among the gods. 3 The centuries from 3500 to 1000 BCE in Egypt are generally thought to comprise six main historical periods. The long predynastic era, characterized by a string of independent local polities, came to an end around 3100 BCE.
A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika by Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin