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Even though the outcomes are highly correlated (but not perfectly correlated) some risk reduction is obtained by adding the security to the collection of investments (the portfolio). If the variance of the investment being considered is relatively large, then only a small amount of that investment will be added. The ultimate diversification tool is a negatively correlated investment. Negative correlation means that when one investment goes up, the other investment goes down. 5 Rain −900 +1,000 Both of the investments have positive expected values and are acceptable unless the investor is adverse to risk.

Investors are frequently interested in two measures: the “premium over bond value” and the “conversion premium”. We will compute these FA November 16, 2006 11:20 SPI-B432 The Bare Essentials of Investing 50 ch04 The Bare Essentials of Investing measures as percentages, although they are sometimes presented in dollar amounts. The premium over bond value is defined as: Market Value Now − Value of Comparable Straight Debt Value of Comparable Straight Debt (1) The conversion premium is defined as: Market Value Now − Value if Converted into Common Stock .

Thus our financial strategy must be broad and encompass a wide range of investments. The historical returns indicate that common stock should be an important part of such an investment strategy. 05 fee for designing your portfolio, then the planner gets 50% of your return. 20, a very healthy return. 10 unless you use a large amount of debt leverage. Convertibles There are securities that do not classify neatly as either debt or stock equity since they are hybrids. While some of these securities are relatively easy to value, others are extremely complex.

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A Comprehensive Introduction To Differential Geometry Volume 5, Second Edition by Michael Spivak

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