By Barbara Fischer, Thomas C. Fox
Some of the most self sustaining thinkers in German highbrow historical past, the Enlightenment writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781) contributed in decisive and lasting model to literature, philosophy, theology, feedback, and drama concept. As a playwright, Lessing invented a brand new German dramatic style, the bourgeois tragedy or bürgerliches Trauerspiel, and wrote one of many first winning German tragedies, Miß Sara Sampson, in addition to one of many best German comedies, Minna von Barnhelm. In his ultimate dramatic masterpiece, Nathan der Weise (Nathan the clever, 1779), he writes of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam, of non secular tolerance and intolerance and the conflict of civilizations. Lessing's dramas are the oldest German theater items nonetheless played usually on German and foreign phases. either his performs and his drama conception have prompted such writers as Goethe, Schiller, Hebbel, Hauptmann, Ibsen, Strindberg, Schnitzler, and Brecht. Addressing an viewers starting from graduate scholars to professional students, this quantity introduces Lessing's existence and instances and locations him in the broader context of the eu Enlightenment. It discusses his pathbreaking dramas, his both innovative theoretical, serious, and aesthetic writings, his unique fables, his cutting edge paintings in philosophy and theology, and his major contributions to Jewish emancipation. the quantity concludes by way of studying the reception of Lessing and his oeuvre in Nazi Germany, within the former East and West Germanys, and in modern severe idea. individuals: Barbara Fischer, Thomas C. Fox, Steven D. Martinson, Klaus L. Berghahn, John Pizer, Beate Allert, H. B. Nisbet, Arno Schilson, Willi Goetschel, Peter Höyng, Karin A. Wurst, Ann Schmiesing, Reinhart Meyer, Hans-Joachim Kertscher, Hinrich C. Seeba, Dieter Fratzke, Helmut Berthold, Herbert Rowland. Barbara Fischer is affiliate professor of German and Thomas C. Fox is professor of German, either on the college of Alabama.
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Extra resources for A Companion to the Works of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture)
The Empire was a medieval construct that Napoleon would eliminate in 1806. But prior to Napoleonic intervention the political fragmentation and diversity of the Empire, caused by centrifugal forces, characterized German history. During the eighteenth century, the German Empire was dominated by the inner-German rivalry between Austria and the emerging Prussia, between the South and the North, between Catholicism and Protestantism. During most of Lessing’s lifetime the Hohenzollern King Frederick II, called Frederick the Great, ruled Prussia (1740 to 1786), while Empress Maria Theresia ruled the Habsburg Empire (1740 to 1780), which during various times in the eighteenth century incorporated parts of present-day Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Poland, and the Czech and Slovak Republics.
Sam. Gotth. Lange, Pastor in Laublingen (A Primer for Mr. Samuel Gotthold Lange, Pastor in Laublingen, 1754), in which he dismantles Lange’s translation of Horace. The interest in English literature that formed a bond between the three friends Nicolai, Mendelssohn, and Lessing led to the first German bourgeois or domestic tragedy (bürgerliches Trauerspiel): Miß Sara Sampson. One of Lessing’s most important early plays, it was included in the last volume of his Schrifften (1755). Lessing wrote the play in solitude in a Potsdam garden house in eight weeks, and the Ackermannsche Truppe staged it in Frankfurt an der Oder on 10 July 1755.
While there were many aspects that made the Empire one German society, there were none that marked Germany as a single political entity or state, and the formal structure of politics of the Empire could not substitute for a national political structure. The Empire was a medieval construct that Napoleon would eliminate in 1806. But prior to Napoleonic intervention the political fragmentation and diversity of the Empire, caused by centrifugal forces, characterized German history. During the eighteenth century, the German Empire was dominated by the inner-German rivalry between Austria and the emerging Prussia, between the South and the North, between Catholicism and Protestantism.
A Companion to the Works of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture) by Barbara Fischer, Thomas C. Fox